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Saturday, 8 December 2012
Friday, 7 December 2012
Thursday, 6 December 2012
Wednesday, 5 December 2012
Indonesia’s Tri-Colored Lakes
Indonesia is one of the world's most geologically active countries. Given its combination of active volcanism and tropical climate, it is home to several volcanoes which exemplify the type of dynamic interactions between the forces of the endosphere and exosphere that are characteristic of volcanic lake environments. Of all the volcanos in Indonesia, Keli Mutu on the island of Flores appears to have the most exotic lakes. In fact, its lakes are so brightly colored that they are featured on the 5,000 rupiah bill and thought of as a national treasure by the people of Indonesia.The three lakes all have different names and local people have for centuries believed that the lakes are the spiritual resting place of their ancestors. It is said the lakes change color according to the mood of the spirit – and if that is the case then the souls' moods are constantly restless.The Lake of Old People (Tiwu Ata Mbupu) at the western point of the volcano is typically blue. Lying apart from the other two crater, this is where it is said the spirits of the old who have led righteous lives go to rest.
The two other lakes share a crater wall. The Lake of Young Men and Maidens (Tiwu Nuwa Muri Koo Fai) is characteristically green. The third, the Enchanted Lake (Tiwu Ata Polo) can often be blood red but in the pictures here appears an olive color. This is the one where the bad people go, young, old, male or female. Kelimutu itself means Boiling Lake and often visitors can see wreathes of steam rise from the surface of the lakes.Although no extensive scientific survey has ever been undertaken below the surface of the lakes it is assumed that the color deviations are due to underwater fumaroles. These are openings in the planet's surface which let out gas and steam – sulfur dioxide, hydrogen chloride and sulfide as well as carbon dioxide. This creates an upwelling (normally an oceanographic term) which drives denser nutrient-rich (and so colored) water upwards to the surface, driving that which had been on top downwards, so changing its appearance.
Tuesday, 4 December 2012
The Biggest Helicopter - Mi-26
The helicopter flew over the burning reactor of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, and in hot spots around the world as part of UN peacekeeping missions. It can carry loads up to 20 tons, flight range - 2000 km. Screw diameter equal wingspan of the Boeing 737. It has two engines to 11 000 hp capacity each. This Mi-26 - the largest commercial helicopter in the world! The airline "UTair" operates the largest in the world in size and load helicopter fleet. The park of the company has 352 helicopters, 25 of which - it is the Mi-26.
Mi-26 - Soviet multipurpose helicopter. The world's largest serial transport helicopter.
Developer - Mil. First flew on December 14, 1977. Serially produced Rostov Helicopter Plant. Total produced more than 310 cars. Issue proceeds.Mi-26 UTair livery UN in Surgut
Heavy helicopter project was given a new designation of the Mi-26, or "product 90". Having received a positive opinion from the Research Institute of the IAP, the team "MVZ. ML Mile "in August 1971, began to develop a pilot project, which was completed in three months. By this time, the military customer has made changes to the technical requirements for the helicopter - increased maximum payload mass of 15 to 18 tons of project was redesigned. The Mi-26, like its predecessor, the Mi-6, designed for transportation of various types of military equipment, delivering ammunition, food, ammunition and other materiel vnutrifrontovyh rendition units troops with military equipment and armament, medical evacuations, and, in some cases for tactical landings.
The Mi-26 is the first home of the new third-generation helicopter. These rotorcraft designed in the late 60's - early 70's. many foreign firms and different from their predecessors improved technical and economic parameters, especially transport efficiency. But the parameters of the Mi-26 is much superior to both domestic and foreign rates helicopter cargo compartment. Load ratio was 50 percent (instead of 34 percent of the Mi-6), fuel efficiency - 0.62 kg / (m * km). Almost at the same geometrical dimensions as that of the Mi-6, the new device has twice the payload and significantly better performance characteristics. Increases in load twice almost no effect on the take-off weight of the helicopter.
Scientific and Technical Council approved the preliminary design of MAP Mi-26 in December 1971 Designing aerial giant implies a large amount of research, development and technological work, and the development of new equipment. In 1972, the "Mil Moscow. ML Mile "gets positive institutions of the aviation industry and the customer. Of the two proposals presented by the Air Force Mi-26 and rotorcraft design Ukhtomskogo helicopter plant - the military chose the Mil helicopters. An important step in designing the helicopter was well-written technical specifications. The customer initially required for the helicopter installation of the drive wheels, heavy weapons, sealing the cargo compartment, providing the engines for auto tractor fuel, and similar improvements that result in a significant weighting structure. Engineers have found a reasonable compromise - secondary demands were rejected, and the main - are made. The result was made the new cabin layout, allowing the crew to increase from four to five, height cargo compartment, as opposed to the original draft, was the same throughout. Undergone design modifications, and some other parts of the helicopter.
In 1974, the face of a heavy Mi-26 is almost fully formed. He had a classic for Mil helicopter transport configuration: almost all of the power plant are above the cargo compartment, made forward of the main gearbox and engines located in the forward part of the cabin crew was equilibrated tail. In the design of the helicopter fuselage for the first time calculated by the method of reference surface curves of the second order, so that all-metal semi-monocoque fuselage of the Mi-26 received its distinctive streamlined "delfinoobraznye" forms. Its construction was originally envisaged to apply the panel assembly and kleesvarnye connection frame.
In the forward fuselage Mi-26 cockpit was from the commander (left pilot), right pilot, navigator and borttehnika and cabin for four people accompanying the goods, and the fifth member of the crew - flight engineer. The sides of the cabins have been prescribed Valium-hatches for emergency escape helicopter, as well as armor.
The central part of the fuselage occupied spacious cargo compartment to the rear compartment, passing in the tail boom. Cabin length - 12.1 m (with ladder - 15m), width - 3.2 m, and the height varied from 2.95 to 3.17 pm As confirmed layout tests Cabin lets you carry all kinds of promising military equipment weighing up to 20 tons designated for the motorized division, such as infantry fighting vehicle, self-propelled howitzer, armored reconnaissance vehicle, etc. Loading vehicles carried under its own power through the cargo hatch in the rear fuselage, equipped with two drop-side doors and let down a ladder with podtrapnikami. Management ladder and doors were hydraulic.
Loading passengers or light cargo could be produced, in addition, three-door ramp on the fuselage sides. In landing the Mi-26 was carrying 82 soldiers or 68 paratroopers. Special equipment allowed for a few hours to turn a helicopter ambulance to transport 60 wounded on stretchers and three accompanying medical staff. Oversized loads weighing up to 20 tons can be transported to the external load. Its units were located in the structure of the power of sex, so that did not require removal of the carriage of goods inside the fuselage. Rear hatch smoothly into the fuselage tail boom with a profiled end-keel beam and stabilizer.
Under the cargo floor fuselage were placed eight main fuel tanks with total capacity of 12,000 liters. At the ferry in the cargo version of the Mi-26 can be installed four additional tanks with total capacity of 14,800 liters. From the top, above the cargo compartment, placed the engine compartment, the main gearbox and two expendable fuel tanks. At the entrances to inlets engines were installed mushroom dustproof device. Supplies fuel tanks and engines were protected by armor.
Deliveries of the Mi-26 in individual transport-combat Army Aviation regiments, the regiments and squadrons frontier began in 1983 after several years of fine tuning, they were reliable and loved ones in the military machine. Combat use of helicopters in Afghanistan began. Were part of the 23rd Regiment Border helicopters were used to transport goods, deliver reinforcements and evacuate the wounded. Combat losses were not. Attended the Mi-26 and almost all armed conflicts in the Caucasus, including the two "Chechen" wars. In particular, it is the Mi-26 was carried out prompt delivery of troops and their redeployment in the fighting in Dagestan in 1999 In addition to the Army Air Corps and Air Force Mi-26 border troops arrived at the time and in the air unit Russian Interior Ministry. Everywhere helicopter proved to be exceptionally reliable and often irreplaceable car.
Were used Mi-26 with fire fighting and during natural disasters. In 1986, helicopters were used in the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident.
In Aeroflot Mi-26 began arriving in 1986 received their first Tyumenskoe airline. It was during the development of gas and oil fields in Western Siberia is particularly suitable Rostov truck. Especially in demand were unique crane-mounting ability machine. Only this can be transported and installed directly on-site loads weighing up to 20 tons was possible Russian and Ukrainian Mi-26 to participate in the UN peacekeeping missions. They worked in the former Yugoslavia, Somalia, Cambodia, Indonesia, etc.
Due to the unique duty, heavy-duty Rostov are in great demand abroad. There they last ten years operated as domestic airlines, as well as in the foreign, hired helicopters to rent or lease. Mi-26T has performed in Germany and other European heavy transport oversized cargo, construction works in the construction of power lines, aerial constructions, reconstruction and construction of industrial facilities, fighting forest fires and urban